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The approach of the Industrial Revolution and the growth of the British Empire ensured that the eighteenth century was a period in which the wealth of the nation and that of an increasing number citizens grew exponentially. This newfound abundance of wealth allowed people to purchase and invest in higher-end objects. One object that stands out in its versatility and malleability throughout the eighteenth century is the horn. The Oxford English Dictionary defines a 'Horn' as being "a non-deciduous excrescence, often curved and pointed, consisting of an epidermal sheath growing about a bony core, on the head of certain mammals, as cattle, sheep, goats, antelopes, etc.” The two main types of animal horns are characterised both by their properties and the animals that they belong to. One such type of horn is defined as an ‘antler’. Antlers belong to the males of certain species like deer, and are renewed annually. Horns, on the other hand, are permanent fixtures in the anatomy of both male and female animals like cows and goats (“On Horns” 334). They are appendages that animals use for fighting, defence, or as showpieces to attract a mate. Horns are natural weapons and ornaments that have been re-purposed by mankind for millennia. 


Since humans had become capable of manufacturing and using tools to assist everyday living, the horns of animals have been considered an ideal material from which to make various kinds of objects. Horns were used by primitive humans from as early as the Upper Palaeolithic period, or approximately 100,000 B.C.E. (Lefcowitz 445), to create weapons, eating utensils, and early vanity or beauty products. The horn had been monopolised to suit the needs of a burgeoning human civilisation. With the advent of the eighteenth century, horns were used as components in a variety of objects that range in function and value; as the century progressed, so did the range of horn-based articles and the creativity with which they were manufactured. They appeared during hunts, on battlefields, in vanity rooms, during feasts, and in the satirical art that escalated in this period. References to horns and the objects that are made from them appear across the literature of the eighteenth century. Horns in literature and art propagate images of wealth and social superiority, while at the same time becoming emblems of derision at the expense of their subjects. Figures like Daniel Defoe, Samuel Johnson, and William Hogarth – people that dominated artistic development in this century – utilise the horn in their mediums to explore the complexities of human institutions. As science and technology evolved and brought about changes to materials that objects are made of, and the way in which they are manufactured, horns began to fall out of use towards the latter end of the century. Nevertheless, the long history of horn-based objects and the adaptability of the horn itself ensures that it had a large impact on the society and culture of the eighteenth century.





Hunting and Horns



The Hunt 


Hunting plays a two-fold role in the usage of horns in the eighteenth century. It is first and foremost a way of gaining access to horns - and other parts of the animal - while at the same time being an activity that makes use of the characteristics and functionality of the horn itself. From the onset of sentient life on Earth, hunting has played a key role in the continuity and development of various species. Humans, along with predatory animals, hunted for sustenance. However, it is an activity that has developed from a necessary means of survival to a form of sport and entertainment for those that can afford to stock and maintain hunting grounds. By the eighteenth century, hunting had become a favourite past-time of an elite community of individuals that sought to exclude those lower down in the social and economic ladder from participation. The relative abundance of food sources – compared to that of the early humans – meant that hunting had ceased to be a means for gathering provisions, and instead became a way for hunters to engage in the killing of animals in order to collect and display their remains as trophies. 

The establishment of hunting as a sport and casual past-time for the social elites had begun in the years preceding the eighteenth century. The feudalism of the Middle Ages saw land being held by the church and monarchy in exchange for labour or services. This forced communities of peasants, members of the budding middle class, and lesser nobles to give up their ability to act freely on lands that had once belonged to them. With the newfound control that the nobility had over the lands in their kingdom, they passed laws and regulations that restricted people’s ability to hunt without explicit permission. Martin Knoll states in his essay Hunting in the Eighteenth Century: An Environmental History Perspective that "electors and other princes in the territories claimed the right to hunt as their exclusive right by the end of the fifteenth century. The lower nobility, clergy and urban elites were left with only minor hunting rights" (16). The discriminative role that hunting had taken worked to segregate social classes throughout the Western world. An activity that once ensured the endurance of human life had been reduced to one that alienated people based on their wealth and status. Hunting by the eighteenth century took on a different meaning to the one it had in previous eras: it became sensationalised and fashionable, an activity to amuse and entertain rather than feed. This gave way to artists and writers of the eighteenth century to portray hunting as an elaborate show of prosperity, class, and power.



  (Fig. 1)


Fig. 1 is a painting by Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland entitled Thomas Nuthall with a Dog and Gun. It depicts English politician Thomas Nuthall loading his gun beside an Oak tree after having killed the stag by his feet. Nuthall was an avid huntsman and held the post of Ranger in Enfield Chase. He had almost unlimited access to the hunting grounds and the animal stock that it held – a privilege that many people in England had been excluded from. Dance-Holland’s painting romanticises hunting and portrays it as a noble endeavour that members of the upper classes partake in. The imagery and techniques that the artist has used in this image establishes the hunt as something natural and pastoral, harking back to its origins. The muted greens and browns that occupy the foreground set the action of the painting in an inconspicuous part of the countryside; it gives the impression that Nuthall could be hunting anywhere, almost as if the regulations that strictly dictate the established norms of hunting are not present. He stands poised and victorious over his kill, emphasising the value that hunting for sport places on the triumph that comes from shooting an animal that can be displayed. The dog by his side is another aspect of hunting that presents it as an activity for the elite. Dogs like Bloodhounds or Spaniels, which were commonly used in hunts, are dogs that required ample time and large amounts of money to be invested into breeding and training. The antlers of the stag are painted in a bright, almost golden hue. The shine of the antlers is indicative of the importance they will continue to play in this scene; the stag is a trophy kill, and its antlers are an ornament. This painting of a generic hunting scene is emblematic of the importance that hunting had among the upper classes of the eighteenth century. Unlike the austere portraits of important figures in previous centuries, Thomas Nuthall’s portrait is set outdoors and paints him in a position of leisure. Hunting, while a sport, now holds enough cultural weight and significance to merit being immortalised in art.  



Hunting Horns



An important part of the ceremony of hunting in the eighteenth century was the hunting horn. This rudimentary instrument has been in use by hunters since the Middle Ages. Hunting horns made of natural horn were called cor de chasse or Hifthorn, and were usually capable of sounding a single note (Monelle 35). While the antlers of animals killed by hunters were generally used for ornamentation, the horns that belonged to animals not considered quarry were re-purposed as tools to be used in the hunt. The traditional hunting horn was made out of the horn of Bovine animals, like cows or oxen. After being removed from the animal, the horns go through a lengthy process that prepares them for human use. The horns are separated from the core, making them hollow and able to be played as an instrument during the hunt. The horn is soaked in water for a period of four to six weeks, in which the core of the horn is putrefied and can be easily extracted. The tip is then sawn off and a mouthpiece inserted. (“On Horns” 337-8). After the basic manufacture of the hunting horn, they would be decorated with engravings, gilding, and precious stones to personalise them to their owner or creator.


Hunting horns are used to provide other hunters with updates on the day’s events,and to control the packs of hounds that accompanied them. Modern hunting horns, generally made of brass or copper, offer players the ability to play different calls that can be made using the different tones that the more advanced instrument can produce. The calls of the hunting horn differ in sound and meaning: the “Moving Off” call indicates that the group is ready to begin the day’s festivities. The “Gone to Ground” call is sounded when the prey that the hounds have been chasing has managed to elude them and take cover underground, and “The Kill” is sounded when the hounds have caught and killed the animal they had been chasing (Aeronm). The hunting horn made of natural horn did not give hunters the ability to play such a wide range of calls; its single note carried the more traditional role of signalling the key points in a hunt while avoiding the complications that arose when more advanced instruments and calls began to be used. Traditional horns carried the advantage of being able to stimulate the hounds into action, while the modern brass horns did not manage to do so with the same efficiency (Monelle 40). The move from natural hunting horns to brass and copper ones signalled the way in which the eighteenth century was itself a stepping stone from the historic past of the Middle Ages and the Restoration to that of the Industrial Revolution and the modernisation that followed. The increase of range available to hunters in the calls they can make indicates the pageantry of hunting in the eighteenth century. The single note calls of the natural hunting horn were created out of a necessity to communicate on a hunt, while the influx of ceremonial calls that can be made with the metal hunting horns establish the hunt as a social event for the upper classes.



                                                                           (Fig. 2)                                                                                                                                      (Fig. 3)


The hunting horns made of Bovine horn, while practical, did not offer much in terms of artistic value. The shape and hue of the horn did not give craftsmen the ability to stray very far from its natural aesthetic. However, more ostentatious instruments made from ivory gave the makers of hunting horns more freedom to create elaborate designs. The hunting horns displayed in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 are both carved out of ivory and feature intricate motifs that significantly increase their value in comparison to the natural hunting horn. Fig. 2 is a hunting horn that was created in Central Europe circa 1700. It is carved out of the tip of an elephant’s tusk, and has been sculpted to depict a dragon. The dragon’s mouth holds on to the mouthpiece, and there are elegant plant motifs carved onto the bottom end of the horn. This instrument, through the intricacy of decoration and value of material, hints at the wealth that its owner possess. Fig. 3 is a hunting horn that is also made out of ivory. However, this horn keeps the shape of the elephant’s tusk intact. It is engraved and inlaid with gold. Both ivory hunting horns show the progress that hunting has made throughout the centuries. It is clear that the hunting horns made of ivory are to be displayed rather than used in a hunt. From the beginnings of ox hunting horns in the Middle Ages, to the modern one made of brass, the practicality and aesthetic worth of the hunting horn has fluctuated. The eighteenth century provided the nobility with new ways to showcase their wealth and status.


As well as being considered cultural artefacts themselves, hunting horns were present in the popular culture of the eighteenth century. Songs composed by prominent figures of the musical and poetry scenes in this period make allusions to hunting horns and the role they play in the hunt. While the activity itself is restricted to a small community, art and literature of the eighteenth century allow people to have access to the splendour and traditions of the amusements they are excluded from. Through the popular medium of song, hunting becomes more accessible, and composers are given the freedom to interpret the theme in any way they see fit. Francis Hopkinson, famed American composer and politician, wrote a series of seven songs in the late eighteenth century that commemorated America's new-found independence. Song six, O'er the hills far away, at the birth of the morn, is a short song that highlights the importance that hunting has. 


"O'er the hills far away, at the birth of the morn. 
I hear the full tone of the sweet sounding horn;
The sportsmen with shottings all hail the new day 
And swift run the hounds o'er the hills far away. 
Across the deep valley their course they pursue 
And rush thro' the thicket yet silver'd with dew; 
Nor hedges nor ditches their speed can delay--- 
Still sounds the sweet horn o'er hills far away."

 (Hopkinson 190) 


This song emphasises the key role that the hunting horn has in a hunt. Hopkinson had described himself on the title page of the song’s sheet music as “the first Native of the United States who has produced a Musical Composition” (Classicalsheetmusicgratis.org). Being a key figure in the new American state, Hopkinson was a member of the elite. Once again, hunting is popularised as being an activity confined to the upper echelons of society. The repetition of "sweet" when describing the horn puts the onus on the symbolism of the horn rather than the actual sound it makes. The single note of the natural ox horn creates a shrill sound that works to excite the hounds more than to make pleasant melodies. Therefore, the sound of the horn is “sweet” because it signals the beginning of the day’s festivities. The fact that Hopkinson mentions the horn at the start and end of the song mirrors the way in which hunters sound the horn to call attention to the beginning and end of the hunt itself. The ability of the hunting horn’s call to be heard from far away in this song presents it as an almost mythologised event; it incites the narrator’s imagination, leading him to picture the glory of the hunt and the ideal conditions that await those that are partaking in it. Additionally, as this song was written in the period after the American Revolution – and Hopkinson himself played a big part in it by being one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence – the song and the subject it depicts create an image of a romanticised period in America’s history. The hunt takes place in the morning, when everything is fresh and untouched by the day’s toil. This presents the America of Hopkinson’s time as a place that is itself new and virginal. The horn that sounds is not one of battle and unrest, but one of peace and merriment.


The hunt, and with it the hunting horn, was popularised through songs in England as well as in America in the eighteenth century. Hunting is a leisurely activity that promises to fulfil the thrill of the kill and to exhibit the tranquillity of nature. George Woodward’s A Hunting Song is a piece of music that differs to that of Hopkinson. It is longer and more repetitive, with its four verses detailing the superiority of hunters over those that choose to lay in bed, while acclaiming the attributes of the hunt itself. Woodward’s piece sings the praises of the hunt in more detail than that of Hopkinson.


"Hark! hark! the shrill Horn 
Rouses up the dull Morn, 
And merrily calls us away, 
No more let us steep 
Our Senses in Sleep. 
But to Hunting devote the new Day. 



‘Tis Hunting inspires, 
Fresh Health and fresh Fires, 
For sweet is the Breath of the Morn: 
Then a Fig for dull Cares, 
 And all State-Affairs, 
We'll follow the Hounds and the Horn.


(Woodward 111)


A Hunting Song highlights the infatuation that the eighteenth century had with hunting. The rhyming couplets that begin each verse proclaim hunting as something that refreshes the mind and body, benefiting those that partake in it in many ways. It engages people to participate in an event that will improve both their health and disposition. Characteristically, in Woodward’s song as well as in Hopkinson’s song, it is the hunting horn that signals both the beginning and the end of the piece. In this song, the hunting horn is personified; it becomes an entity that takes on the great task of waking up the hunters and sending them on their merry way. The horn, as well as signalling the start of the day, brings the festivities to the hunters. Hunting distracts the participants from the “dull cares” and “state-affairs” that they might have, ensuring that their focus is retained solely by the task at hand. Hunting in Woodward’s song is presented as something that allows men and women to liberate themselves from the constraints of stress and responsibility, and give themselves over to the freedom of recreation. The literature of the eighteenth century is key in understanding the role that hunting and hunting horns had in the lives of people in this period. It offers a range of different sources that use similar means to distinguish the privilege of those that are able to hunt; it paints them as an elite collective of people that can afford to have leisure time in the first place. Hunting horns, one of the key tools of the hunt, are emblems of a society in which economic and cultural divides dictate who has the power to control what is to be done with the natural world they have dominion over.





Powder Horns



One of the most characteristic uses of the horn in the eighteenth century is that of the powder horn. Powder horns – as their name indicates – are used to hold gunpowder. The eighteenth century was a period that saw many great conflicts throughout the world: the Jacobite Uprisings of 1715 and 1745, the French Revolution (1789-1799) and the American Revolution (1775-1783) all participated in the social, political, and cultural reforms that paved the way for modernisation. Military factions across all sides of these conflicts developed weapons and other military paraphernalia in order to succeed in defeating their enemies. Inventions like the Bayonet in the late seventeenth century changed the way wars were fought by allowing soldiers to kill enemies at a distance and up close without having to change weapons. However, even with the modernisation of warfare, the powder horn that was universally used in battles of the eighteenth century remained largely unchanged. Powder horns kept the gunpowder dry and away from the danger of involuntary combustion.


Powder horns, like the large majority of horn-based objects of the eighteenth century, were made out of the horns of Bovine animals like cows and oxen. These horns were favoured over those of goats and sheep as they are a size that makes them easy to carry, light and durable, and their tapered tip made the pouring of gunpowder into the cartridge of the rifle easier (Grancsay 1). The horns were hollowed out, the base plugged, and the tip drilled out and fitted with a stopper for easy access. The process of manufacturing a powder horn is demonstrated in Video 1 by the television programme How It’s Made. While in this video the manufacturers of the powder horn use some modern machinery as part of the process, the basic principles of the making of powder horns still apply:


(Video 1)

Powder horns were made out of a common and often inexpensive material. The horns of bovine animals were relatively easy to get hold of and the production process of the powder horn did not incur much expense on the part of the manufacturer. The powder horn, despite its relatively modest production, was still a valuable and highly sought-after object in the eighteenth century. A criminal proceeding at the Old Bailey in 1711 described a violent highway robbery. Daniel Coats was found guilty on the 12th of January for “assaulting Henry Bates upon the Queen's High-way, and taking from him a Silver Watch, a Powder Horn, and 3 s. Money." The value of the powder horn is established through this criminal proceeding in two ways: by Mr Bates having the powder horn on his person and by the fact that Mr Coats stole it along with money and a silver watch. Mr Bates’s possession of the powder horn prescribes its value because it is an object which carries the means for violence or self-defence – it feeds guns that could be used in fights or in hunts. Mr Coats stealing the powder horn ensures that it holds commercial value as he risked being arrested in order to attain it. The powder horn becomes an indispensable object; it is counted among the belongings of real people and of characters in the literature of the eighteenth century. A reference is made to powder horns in one of the first English novels. Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe tells the tale of a castaway who spends many years shipwrecked on a remote island. When attempting to salvage remains from the wreck, the protagonist insisted that:



"My next care was for some ammunition and arms; there were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols, these I secur'd first, with some powder-horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords: I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stow'd them, but with much search I found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water " (42)



Powder horns are taken by Crusoe as accoutrements of weaponry. They will help him transport the gunpowder from the ship to his makeshift home on the island. When gunpowder gets wet it is rendered unusable. Therefore, powder horns are the perfect containers in which to store it, as the natural properties of the horn make it watertight to allow the powder to remain dry. The weapons will help Crusoe establish himself on the island and defend it from invaders, with the powder horn becoming an essential part of that process. Robinson Crusoe’s colonialisation of the island is just one example of the power and importance that weapons had in the eighteenth century. The powder horn is an object that supplied gunpowder to weapons that allowed nations to conquer the world, and powered conflicts that reformed political and social systems.


Powder horns were most frequently used by soldiers on the battlefield. The convenient container lightened the loads of men that were forced to march for long periods of time – often in foreign or unfavourable environments – and carry all of the necessary military equipment required in war. In order to personalise the powder horns, people often engraved designs into the horn itself. In the eighteenth century, ornamental or highly decorative powder horns that were made professionally began to be seen more frequently. While soldiers sometimes used the powder horn as a sort of canvas on which they engraved images and words personal to them, the decoration of powder horns grew into a lucrative business for craftsmen of the period too. Jane Shadel Spillman states that powder horns were "often created by semiprofessional engravers who found this a profitable sideline" (200). Powder horns, while mainly used for practical purposes, became ornaments themselves. The protracted process of manufacture created generic powder horns that could be decorated by professionals and amateurs alike. It was common for the professional work to be “executed in fine outline with a sharp, pointed graver and may be distinguished from that crudely engraved with a jackknife by the accuracy and delicacy of the ornament," while the horns of common soldiers had decorations which were "pricked out with a needle” (Grancsay 3). The work of professional engraves focused on elegant imagery and decorative motifs, while the powder horns engraved by soldiers were most often decorated with key details about their owners and maps or images of the locations they were in. Decorating powder horns, while a lucrative business for professionals, allowed people like soldiers to express themselves and to document important information that needed to stand the test of time.  


(Fig. 4)


An example of the common powder horn of the eighteenth century is presented in Fig. 4. This horn was created in 1760 and features many of the types of markings typically found on powder horns of this period. The powder horn in this image is made of cow horn, with a spout of metal. It is intricately designed with writing that is seen all over, and with a simple decorative border carved in the horn by the spout. What the horn lacks in fine detail it makes up in historical significance. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, which displays this horn as part of its collection of arms and armour, provides a catalogue of the inscriptions on the horn; the main inscription reads “Amos Powers, his horn / Agt ye 25 AD 1760 done at the camps / at Ticonderoga.” The horn establishes the identity of its owner, and his precise location at the time of engraving. The inscriptions suggest that Amos Powers was at the Battle of Ticonderoga in 1759. This was a battle fought at Fort Ticonderoga between the British and the French over their claims of land in modern-day New York and Pennsylvania. This powder horn is a direct relic of war that has survived into the modern day.


(Fig. 5)


The powder horn shown in Fig. 5 is from the same collection as the powder horn in Fig. 4 in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This powder horn, similar to the previous example, is also made of cow horn and tipped with a metal spout. However, the inscriptions engraved into this powder horn are very different to the ones on the powder horn in Fig. 4. This horn features the inscription “Jacob Cuyler Fort Stanwix Septr 10, 1761.” Fort Stanwix was an important fort in America, built to defend waterways of the Atlantic Ocean that cut through New York and other neighbouring states. Jacob Cuyler engraved detailed maps and images onto his powder horn, as opposed to simply inscribing his name and location. The horn is engraved with pictorial maps of New York, Canada, St. Paul’s Cathedral, and a drawing of the British Royal Arms. Maps of key landmarks in certain areas allowed soldiers to find their way to and from battle fields. This powder horn takes on a new function in the eighteenth century; as well as carrying gunpowder, the powder horn works as a map that is more durable than maps made of paper. Powder horns are versatile objects that can be re-purposed to suit the many needs of battle in the eighteenth century; they are both practical containers and creative outlets for people in a time of almost constant conflict.





 Horn Combs


  Natural Combs


The versatility of the animal horn as a material from which everyday objects are manufactured is seen through its place in vanity rooms of the eighteenth century. While the shape and characteristics of the horn itself are generally maintained in hunting horns and gun powder horns, craftsmen utilised only parts of the horn to make combs. As opposed to the combs made of plastic that often appear in the years following the eighteenth century, horn combs are made of a more durable material that maintains their value and ensures their longevity. Along with durability, horn combs boast the ability to reduce the static electricity of hair and make it healthier and shinier (Thomasliorac.com). The styling of hair has been a part of the beauty routine for millennia; hair styles allow people to express their creativity and affluence very visibly. The increased manufacture of Mirrors in the eighteenth century encouraged people to invest in objects that enhance beauty. Horn combs allowed people to style their hair in accordance to the great fashions of the period, becoming symbols of vanity and opulence.


(Fig. 6)


Horn combs, like the one seen in Fig. 6, are often made of ox or bull horn. The horn comb in Fig. 6 was made in Europe or America, but features details that draw inspiration from Oriental designs. It has a curved edge that allowed for easier handling, with fine teeth that provide a more thorough combing experience. It also features a lightly coloured flower blossom motif in the centre of the comb, with Chinese characters on either side. This horn comb has a simple design that maximises functionality, while at the same time promoting a sense of ornamentation. It is likely that it has been manufactured using the technique of making horn combs that is described in On Horn and Tortoiseshell: the horns are shaped by rasps and scrapers of various forms, and the teeth are cut by a double saw with two blades of varying lengths that cut the teeth in different ways, which are shaped by triangular rasps (339). The process is not very lengthy or complicated, giving comb makers the ability to focus on the design that will make their comb unique to their brand. The horn comb in Fig. 6 is a relatively basic comb, with the Oriental style of design as its only stand-out feature. As seen in the intricacy of designs found on the hunting horn and the gun powder horn, horn is a material that can be embellished in many different ways; the horn comb made of natural Bovine horn seems to place practicality at the forefront of  its characteristics.


The general abundance of animal horns in the eighteenth century meant that horn combs could be made easily and sold in bulk. Horn combs, usually valued by weight, were cheaper than ivory or tortoiseshell combs – combs made of exotic horns imported from the Colonies – but more expensive than basic wooden combs. An inventory of a late seventeenth century shop saw nine horn combs valued at 18d and stocked by barbers as a “visible sign of quality” (Cox and Dannehl, "Hondschoote say - Horn leaves"). The quality of the horn combs ensured that they grew in popularity, while their relative low cost meant that they were readily available to a larger group of people that would not generally have access to higher-end items in the eighteenth century. The popularity of horn combs in this period also gave way to an increase in crime associated with this object. A record in the Old Bailey documents the theft of a set of horn combs: Ann Eaton was indicted for stealing twenty four horn combs from Robert Redbourn in 1707. The desirability that led to Ms Eaton stealing such a large quantity of combs presents the horn comb as an object that held enough value to merit theft. The eighteenth century’s interest in beauty established the horn comb as an object that signifies elegance and status.


Ivory Combs



While most horn combs were made out of Bovine horn, the most desirable and valuable combs were made of ivory. It is a hard white material from which various objects were made. The ivory trade was prolific in the eighteenth century. Ivory from West Africa, the largest exporter of ivory in this period, was an “important trade item; it appears on most lists of items purchased by Europeans" (Feinberg and Johnson 435). Ivory is a material that is found in the tusks and teeth of animals like the hippopotamus, walrus, and most commonly, Elephants from Africa or Asia. It led to the endangerment of many species as hunters – and after the ban on ivory trading in 1990, poachers – killed thousands of animals in order to saw off their ivory tusks and sell them to Europeans. The ivory trade was one of the more lucrative aspects of Colonialism. Between 1699 and 1725, more than 1,500,000 Dutch pounds of Ivory were exported by the West India Company (Feinberg and Johnson 439). The exponential value and popularity of ivory made it the focus of much art and literature of the eighteenth century and beyond. Joseph Conrad described in his landmark 1899 novel Heart of Darkness, that while everything in the trading station was in confusion and natives gave them trouble, it was all worth it for the “precious trickle of ivory” (119) they managed to extract from their colony.   




                                                                                         (Fig.7)                                                                                                                    (Fig. 8)



Combs made out of ivory hold considerably more commercial and artistic value than the combs made of natural ox horn. Fig. 7 presents an image of an ivory comb from India, dated from the eighteenth century. This comb features a very elaborate and intricate engraving of the Hindu god Ganesha, with various other figures engraved around it. This comb is valuable not only because of the material from which it is made, but also for the painstakingly detailed carvings that it displays. Ivory is a much more durable material than ox horn, allowing comb makers to engrave complex designs without the fear of the horn breaking. Fig. 8 is another example of an eighteenth century ivory comb. This Sri Lankan horn features paint as well as ivory to create an image of a female figure dancing in the centre, with two other figures stationary by her side. The figures are surrounded by engraved plant motifs, and a geometric border that runs along the top and bottom of the design. Both ivory combs are decidedly more advanced than the basic ox horn comb being manufactured in Europe at the same time. Because of the high amount of money an ivory comb was worth, manufacturers in Britain often made false ivory combs that they advertised as “bastard ivory combs” (Cox and Dunnehl, "Isopie - Ivory leaves."). This shows the powerful effect that ivory and ivory combs had on the eighteenth century; it was ‘harvested’ by the colonised, exported around the world, and counterfeited by those that could not afford it. 


“Unnumber’d Treasures ope at once, and here

The various Off’rings of the World appear:

From each she nicely culls with curious Toil,

And decks the Goddess with the glitt’ring Spoil.

This Casket India’s glowing Gems unlocks,

And all Arabia breathes from yonder Box.

The Tortoise here and Elephant unite,

Transform’d to Combs, the speckled and the white.”

(Pope, i. 129-136)


Ivory combs feature in the literature of the eighteenth century too. Alexander Pope’s pivotal mock-heroic narrative poem The Rape of the Lock makes an allusion to ivory combs. The narrator of the poem describes the toilette of a lady and the various objects that can be found there. The narrator tells of numerous “treasures” that adorn the lady’s toilette, including precious gems from India and perfumes from Arabia. One of the treasures that makes an appearance in the poem is the “comb”. The combs in the toilette are made of tortoiseshell and ivory, both costly materials exported from exotic locales all over the world. The lady who can boast of having them in her toilette must be a very noble woman, whose fortune far transcends the costs of the imported treasures the narrator describes. Pope describes these objects as being kept behind the closed doors of a lady’s private toilette; they are hidden away, almost as if needing to be protected from the outside world that threatens to steal them away. The ivory comb in this instance belongs to a collection of rare and exquisite items which emphasise the wealth and grandeur of the woman who owns them. Horn combs, and in particular ivory combs, accentuate the significance placed on vanity in the eighteenth century; people will spend inordinate amounts of money in order to improve the way they look and impress the people around them.   





Drinking Horns



Throughout the long eighteenth century, and in the centuries that precede it, the horns of animals have been moulded into utensils for human use. One of the more traditional and ceremonious utensil made of horn is the drinking horn. Drinking horns have been emblematic of the culture of feasting and banqueting that people of all ranks in life partake in. Unlike the exclusionary role of the hunting horn in keeping lesser nobles and peasants out of the pastimes of the nobility, drinking horns are used in feasts to commemorate or celebrate all sorts of individuals and events. Like with any object found in the eighteenth century, drinking horns vary in design and worth. The shape and properties of horns make them ideal vessels for the consumption of alcohol at feasts and other important events; the horns can easily be hollowed out, their cracks and crevices filled, and their surfaces smoothed out and decorated. Drinking horns are made by sawing the hollowed-out horn to the desired length and roasting it over a fire. The heated horn is placed in a wooden mould where it is allowed to cool and be polished both inside and out (“On Horns” 341). The animal horn is turned into a malleable object that is easy to work with. The process of creating a drinking horn had remained generally unchanged until the imposition of the Industrial Revolution which saw manufacturing processes slowly being taken over by machinery. The process of making a drinking horn in the eighteenth century is done largely by hand, with minimal uses of machines like the “gage-tool” and “crown-saw” (“On Horns” 341).


Drinking horns, even in the eighteenth century, hold significant historical value. They are objects that hark back to the long traditions of grandiose feasts attributed to the likes of medieval lords and Vikings. It has been acknowledged that "the prestige of the object was inseparable from its function, and in the context of the quasi-heroic society of medieval Wales and Ireland, with its conventional emphasis on feasting, the main function of the 'buffalo' horn was to serve as a stylish and costly drinking vessel" (Mac Cana 84). This shows that the drinking horn carries a symbolic value that arguably surpasses its functional use. One of the more remarkable and well-documented historic uses of a drinking horn is found in the records of Dunvegan Castle of the Macleod Clan on the Isle of Skye. Sir Rory Mor’s Horn is a silver-tipped drinking vessel made of ox horn. It has been an heirloom of the Macleod Clan for centuries, making an appearance in one of the most important travel documents of the eighteenth century. Samuel Johnson’s A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland is a journal which documents Johnson’s travels through Scotland with James Boswell in the autumn of 1773. On their trip through the Isle of Skye, Johnson notes the impressions he had upon seeing the Dunvegan Castle drinking horn:


"Here we saw some traces of former manners, and heard some standing traditions. In the house is kept an ox’s horn, hollowed so as to hold

perhaps two quarts, which the heir of Macleod was expected to swallow at one draught, as a test of his manhood, before he was permitted

to bear arms, or could claim a seat among the men." (60)


In his journal, Johnson gives a brief outline of the nature and purpose of the horn. He describes its use and alludes to the fact that there is a long history behind this object. He identifies the “former manners” and “traditions” that belong to the object. In this journal, Johnson had noted a distinct lack of the cultural traditions that he had expected to find in eighteenth century Scotland. However, by seeing Sir Rory Mor’s Horn and hearing about the folklore that surrounds it, Johnson finally gets to experience what he had been hoping to find on his travels. It is a relic of a Scotland that, through its move towards modernisation, has lost much of its historical bearing. Johnson’s interest in the drinking horn also represents the interest that people in the eighteenth century took in tourism; he travelled to Scotland to see a world unlike his own, and experience the ways of a people that he does not belong to. In discovering the drinking horn at Dunvegan Castle, Johnson has essentially found an object belonging to a distant world he would not be able to access otherwise.



(Fig. 9)


The drinking horn belonging to the Macleods of Dunvegan can be traced back to the fourteenth century. It has been documented that when Malcolm, the third chief of the clan, was young, he killed a bull that was terrorising the people of his clan. In the fight with this bull, "one of the bull's horns was broken off. This Malcolm carried as a trophy of his prowess to Dunvegan, where it still remains, having been converted into a drinking-horn, which each Chief on his succession was obliged to drain to the bottom at one draught of whatever quality of liquor it was the fashion of his time to drink." (Macleod 40). The tradition that Johnson alludes to in his documentation of the drinking horn at Dunvegan is a piece of folklore that dates back to very near the clan’s inception. The history tied to the horn gives it status as a symbol of the power of the Macleod clan. Fig. 9 is a photograph of the drinking horn of Dunvegan Castle itself, along with other important Macleod heirlooms, the ‘Dunvegan Cup’ and ‘Fairy Flag’. It is large and retains the shape of the original horn it was made from, remaining in good condition. The drinking horn that Samuel Johnson saw in Dunvegan Castle in 1773 still symbolises the celebration attributed to feasts and banquets of past eras. As a historical relic more than a drinking vessel, the horn celebrates the endurance of Scotland’s history and folklore.  


                                                                                      (Fig. 10)


Animal horns were used to create everyday objects as well as grandiose vessels for the gentry in the eighteenth century. The eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries present drinking utensils made of horn that differ greatly from those found in the myths and legends of the land. Fig. 10 shows an example of one such drinking utensil. The horn cup is shaped differently from the full-horned drinking horns commonly seen, and features a design that is not often found on more traditional drinking horns. It is smaller and more portable, allowing for easier consumption of Wine and other popular beverages of the time; its shape accords for a more frequent use because it has a flat end that can be set down, rather than having to be constantly held or placed on a stand. The decoration was made by using a hot needle to engrave the designs onto the horn. This is a cheaper alternative to the elaborate drinking horns of previous generations. The engraving features images of people on horseback and in a carriage riding through the country, with large houses in the background. It depicts a modest day-to-day scene of generic life in the eighteenth century. The simple design works to make the cup stand out from the plainer yet more elaborately shaped drinking horns of the period; it offers functionality rather than theatricality. The change from ceremonious drinking horns to practical horn cups in the eighteenth century shows the way in which progress was starting to become more accessible to the people – the increasing wealth of England and its citizens allowed more people to have admittance into traditions that had previously only included the rich.   





Horns of the Cuckold



In addition to the many functional and practical uses of the horn, art and literature of the eighteenth century utilised the horn as a symbol of ridicule and unfaithfulness. The horn is used to symbolise cuckoldry - one of the fears that people in this century had about relationships and their complications. Cuckoldry is defined by the OED as meaning "the dishonouring of a husband by adultery with or on the part of his wife." Adultery, one of the cardinal sins warned against by the Ten Commandments of the Christian faith, is a theme that crops up constantly in cultures throughout history. Cuckoldry focuses attention on the adultery perpetrated by wife against husband, and makes him a victim open to the ridicule and derision of his peers. Cuckoldry has an important cultural significance in the eighteenth century; it is a topic that has garnered much attention from writers and artists of the period, who satirised and caricatured the plights of the cuckold in much detail. Satire in the eighteenth century was an evolving form. It was a part of an art (and often journalism) that was a distinctive outlet for political expression, and both a reflector and shaper of public opinion (Loussouarn 328). Satire of artists like William Hogarth popularised the cuckold and his horns, making him an emblem of eighteenth century humour.


The association that horns have to cuckoldry has been the cause of much debate and deliberation. References to horned men who have adulterous wives can be found in cultures all around the world. The most established theory that explains the connection between horns and cuckoldry is described in Claire McEachern's essay Why do Cuckolds have Horns? In this essay, McEachern affirms that “virile animals, such as bulls, stags, and the traditionally lecherous goat have horns. Horns would thus seem [...] appropriate for the cuckold” (610). While the male animals who wear the horns are the ones in the superior alpha role of their species, this theory subverts male power by placing these horns on a human. The horns given to a cuckold become a way to dehumanise and emasculate him. They turn the man into a beast that has no power over his wife and home – he has allowed his wife to command and depose him as the head of the household by taking control of the sexual authority in their relationship. Satirists capitalise on the image of the horned cuckold by ridiculing him in their work.


(Fig. 11)


The satire of the cuckold is primarily a visual one. The development of mass printing allowed writers and artists in the eighteenth century to reproduce their work on a greater scale, reaching a larger audience. One of the most popular visual satirists in the eighteenth century is William Hogarth. Hogarth engraved and painted images that were part of sequences depicting moral subjects that offer a commentary on contemporary issues. In his sequence Four Times of Day, Hogarth depicts a man that has been given horns. Fig. 11 is the third painting in the Four Times of Day series, entitled Evening, and it presents a snapshot of a moment in the life of London’s suburban bourgeoisie in Islington. The painting depicts a mundane scene; there are figures smoking inside the inn on the left of the painting, a woman entering Sadlers Wells theatre on the right of the frame, and a family walking across the centre. The weather seems balmy and serene, projecting a sense of the tranquillity of summer evenings in the country. However, the characters that Hogarth depicts in the foreground of the image provide a strong contrast to the apparent peace of the environment. Two small children are causing a scene, a pregnant woman is fanning herself in desperation to escape the heat, and the man by her side holding a child appears to be miserable. The most telling aspect of this painting that characterises it as satire is the horns that stand behind the man’s head. A cow is being milked behind the family, and its horns are conveniently placed so as to appear to be protruding from the man’s head. This is a clear invocation of the cuckold. The horns bring into question the legitimacy of the children of the family; it is suggested that the wife had cheated on her husband and is now pregnant with another man’s baby. Hogarth satirises the man that has been cuckolded in this image by portraying him as almost inferior to his wife – she is larger than him and seems to be leading the way. In being cuckolded, this man has lost the power he held as a man, and arguably his place in society.


(Fig. 12)


Fig.12 is another piece of visual satire that popularises and commercialises the figure of the cuckold. My Wife! is a series of illustrations by Thomas Rowlandson from 1815 that tell the story of a man who marries a younger woman and is eventually cuckolded by her. The six illustrations in the series are accompanied by rhymes that caption the actions being presented in the images. Fig. 12 shows the fifth panel in the series, which depicts the subject of the satire becoming aware of his wife’s extra-marital adventures. The enraged man is presented as no match for his wife; he is overweight and old, while she is still young and beautiful. Rowlandson has placed a pair of golden horns onto the head of the husband, visually demonstrating the fact that he has been cuckolded. His wife and child seem to look at him with a contempt that facilitates the role of the cuckold as an object of ridicule. His fury is taken very lightly and does not seem to bother the other characters in the image. He has lost the authority that he once held over his family. The rhyme that accompanies the image states: "Who in six months made me stare / By shewing me a son and heir / And on my head put horns a pair? My Wife!" The strong rhyme of the caption gives the text a light-hearted tone and does not invite sympathy for the cuckold. Horns in this image represent a man’s inability to fulfil the roles that were imparted onto him by society; he cannot keep his wife, father children, or demand respect.


Horns as symbols of cuckoldry appear in the literature of the eighteenth century as well as in the art of the period. Visual satire uses artistic mediums to immediately emphasise the cuckolded subject in the image, while literature uses literary techniques to achieve a similar goal – though often not with as notable an effect. John Smith's 1713 ballad The Wedding-Ring, or, An Infallible Remedy against Cuckoldom, is a piece of literature that makes a direct connection between cuckoldry and horns.



"'Tis granted, quoth he, and without more Delay He seem'd on his Finger a Ring to convey; 

Whilst This Thou wear'st, Thou canst not be A Cuckold, Friend, take that from Me; 

But if the said Ring be not constantly worn, 

Man, nor Devil can't keep Thee from wearing the Horn.”

(Smith 206)


The fifth verse of this ballad makes a reference to the popular association between horns and cuckoldry. This ballad can be considered ironic or satirical as it conventionalises the sanctity of marriage and seems to provide the ballad’s narrator with an easy fix to a very complicated issue. This verse appears to suggest that men, in given circumstances, have control over whether or not they become cuckolds. By wearing the ring, the man is protected from adultery. But, if he does not to wear it, he consciously makes the decision to be cuckolded. It suggests that men who bear authority and know how to control their wives will not have to be subjected to the tortures and humiliations of cuckoldry. The “Horn” in Smith’s ballad is emphasised at the end of the verse through its capitalisation: it becomes a haunting presence that asserts itself over the ballad. It puts into question the inheritance and acquisition of capital, challenges the integrity of women, and forces men to see themselves as potential victims of ridicule. Cuckoldry – and by association, horns – becomes an apparition that plagues the eighteenth century with the threat of the invalidation of masculinity.  





Primary Sources





Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe. London: Penguin Books, 2001. Print. 

          This novel is one of the first great English novels. It paved the way for a new type of writing that influenced much of the work that followed. The extract presented in this wiki as           it was helpful in demonstrating the prevalent role and importance of powder horns in the eighteenth century; they were commonplace and found aboard the ship that the           protagonist had been shipwrecked in.


Hopkinson, Francis. "Song VI." The Miscellaneous Essays and Occasional Writings of Francis Hopkinson, Esq. 1792, pp. 190. Literature Onlinehttp://0-gateway.proquest.com.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/openurl?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&xri:pqil:res_ver=0.2&res_id=xr  i:lion&rft_id=xri:lion:ft:po:Z200193698:2. Accessed 30 Nov. 2016.

          This text is a song written in the eighteenth century about hunting. I have used it in my wiki because it is a good example of the way in which hunting and hunting horns           influenced popular culture at the time.


Johnson, Samuel. "A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland." Journey to the Hebrides, edited by Ian McGowan, Canongate Classics, 1996, pp. 2-146. Print.

          This source is an extract from Johnson's travel journal about his trip through Scotland. It is a key source as it shows the significant historical and cultural value that drinking           horns had. Johnson was impressed by this object and made a point of including it in his journal, making the drinking horn of Dunvegan a relevant relic to this wiki.


Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." Eighteenth-Century Poetry: An Annotated Anthology, 2nd edition, edited by David Fairer and Christine Gerrard. Blackwell, 2003, pp. 113-132.

          This source is a short extract from Pope's poem that describes some of the objects found in the toilette of the lady that the poem describes. I have used it in my wiki because it           bring attention to the ivory comb as an object of luxury and distinction.


Smith, John. "The Wedding-Ring, or, An Infallible Remedy against Cuckoldom." Poems upon several Occasions. By Mr. Smith. 1713, pp. 206. Literature Onlinehttp://0-gateway.proquest.com.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/openurl?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&xri:pqil:res_ver=0.2&res_id=xr  i:lion&rft_id=xri:lion:ft:po:Z200489521:2. Accessed 14 Jan. 2017.

          This is an extract from Smith's ballad. It is an important source as it shows the way in which cuckoldry was satirised in the eighteenth century. It allowed me to show an           example of the ridicule heaped upon the cuckold in many different literary styles.


Woodward, George. "A Hunting Song." Poems on Several Occasions. By Mr George Woodward. 1730, pp. 111. Literature Online, http://0-gateway.proquest.com.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/openurl?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&xri:pqil:res_ver=0.2&res_id=xr  i:lion&rft_id=xri:lion:ft:po:Z200542664:2. Accessed 30 Nov. 2016.

          This source shows two verses  found at the beginning and end of Woordward's song. It presents hunting as a fun activity that rouses the senses and distracts from worries. I           used this source as it allows me to demonstrate the way in which hunting had become a social event in the eighteenth century, rather than a way to get food.



Old Bailey Cases


Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 7.2, 7 Dec. 2016), January 1711, trial of Daniel Coats (t17110112-13).

          This source is a proceeding that was documented by the Old Bailey in the eighteenth century. It presents the violent theft of a powder horn, emphasising its desirability and           value.


Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 7.2, 5 Jan. 2017), December 1707, trial of Ann Eaton (t17071210-38). 

          This is also a proceeding documented by the Old Bailey, that shows the theft of a large quantity of horn combs. This source is important as it presents the horn comb as           something easily accessible and found in large quantities, while also proving to hold enough worth to merit stealing.  





Fig. 1 - Dance-Holland, Sir Nathaniel. Thomas Nuthall with a Dog and Gun. c. 18th century, oil on canvas. Web. Tate Collection. 7 Jan. 2017. http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/dance-holland-thomas-nuthall-with-a-dog-and-gun-t00053.

          This source is a painting of a well known politician depicted in the midst of a hunt, after having killed a stag. This is source is key in demonstrating the popularity and           fashionable qualities of hunting in the eighteenth century.


 Fig. 2 - Anon. Hunting Horn. c. 1700, ivory. Web. The Met Collection. 11 Jan. 2017. http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/502060?sortBy=Relevance&ft=hunting+horn&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=10

         This image is of an ivory hunting horn from the eighteenth century. I have used this source to show the way in which hunting horns were highly decorative objects that are           both functional and aesthetically ornamental.


Fig. 3 - Anon. Hunting Horn (Oliphant). c. 18th century, ivory and gilded silver. Web. The Met Collection. 11 Jan. 2017.  http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/446987?sortBy=Relevance&ft=hunting+horn&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=13

          This source is another image of an ivory hunting horn. I have used this image as well as the previous one as a way to show the variety of options available for the decoration of           hunting horns in the eighteenth century. I also like the way in which this image shows a hunting horn that has kept the original shape of the elephant tusk it was made from.


Fig. 4 - Anon. Powder Horn. 1760, cow horn. Web. The Met Collection. 6 Dec. 2016. http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/24804?sortBy=Relevance&ft=powder+horn&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=5

          This source is an image of an American powder horn from the eighteenth century. I used it in my wiki because it is an example of the way in which powder horns were used for           decorative purposes. The inscriptions on this powder horn show that it was used in an important battle, demonstrating the important role that powder horns had in wars.


Fig. 5 - Anon. Powder Horn. 1761, cow horn and wood. Web. The Met Collection. 6 Dec. 2016. http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/29379

         This is another example of an engraved powder horn from the eighteenth century. This source is important to my wiki because it shows the way in which powder horns served           multiple purposes; as well as holding gunpowder, they were used as canvases for maps of the territories that battles took place in. This horn is engraved with maps from           multiple places.


Fig. 6 - Anon. Horn Comb. c. 1700-1942, horn. Web. The Met Collection. 16 Feb. 2017. http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/123743?sortBy=Relevance&ft=horn+comb&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=4

          This source is an example of a typical eighteenth century horn comb. I have used it in my wiki to show the basic type of horn comb that was easily accessible to people at this           time.


Fig. 7 - AnonComb. 18th century, ivory. Web. Museum of Fine Arts Huston Collection. 4 Jan. 2017. https://www.mfah.org/art/detail/84544 

          This is an example of an ornamental ivory comb from eighteenth century India. This source is important to my wiki as it provides a contrast to the everyday horn comb; this is a           more expensive and luxurious product available to wealthier individuals. It is also a product of the rampant Colonialism of the eighteenth century.                    


Fig. 8 - Anon. Comb. 18th-19th century, ivory with paint. Web. Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection. 4 Jan. 2017. http://collections.lacma.org/node/248010

          This ivory comb is similar to the one in Fig. 7. However, I have used it in my wiki to show the different ways in which ivory combs could be decorated; this comb features paint           as well as ivory, giving it a more colourful and visually exciting aesthetic.


Fig. 9 - Anon. Sir Rory Mor's Horn. c. 10th century, ox horn and silver. The Macleods of Dunvegan From the Time of Leod to the End of the Seventeenth Century, by Roderick Charles Macleod, 1927. p. 38-9. Web. 13 Mar. 2017. https://archive.org/details/macleodsofdunveg00macl 

          This image is on the drinking horn found in Dunvegan Castle. I have used this source to mainly illustrate the documentation of the horn by Johnson in his travel journal, and to           show an example of the more elaborate and traditional drinking horns that were used.


Fig. 10 - Anon. Horn Beaker. 1800-1850, horn. Web. Compton Verney Collection. 14 Mar. 2017. http://www.comptonverney.org.uk/cv_collections/4-horn-beakers/

          This image is of an engraved cup made of horn. I have used this image in my wiki to provide a contrast to the Dunvegan horn and other ceremonious horns of its kind. This           drinking cup made of horn is a more practical vessel that was used in the eighteenth century.


Fig. 11 - Hogarth, William. Four Times of Day: Evening. 1736, oil on canvas. Web. Artstor. 29 Nov. 2016.  http://0library.artstor.org.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/library/secure/ViewImagesid=8CJGczI9NzldLS1WEDhzTnkrX3oqeFh6fCM%3D&userId=gDVEcTMn&zoomparams=

          This is a painting that was part of Hogarth's Four Times of Day series. It provides a visual example of the way in which horns were used in satire to present a man that has been           cuckolded by his wife. As Hogarth is one of the most influential satirists of this time, I thought it was important to use one of his works in my wiki to demonstrate the prevalence           of the cuckold's horn motif.


Fig. 12 - Rowlandson, Thomas. My Wife! Panel 5. 1815, coloured etching. Web. Royal Collection Trust. 30 Nov. 2016. https://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/810952/my-wife

         This source is an image that also shows a man that has been cuckolded. I have used this source because it demonstrates the commercial nature of cuckold satire; rather than it           being a painting like Hogarth's, Rowlandson's etching was part of a series of captioned illustrations that were available in print shops of the eighteenth century. It made visual           satire of the horned cuckold more accessible.


Secondary Sources




Aeronm. “The Calls of the Hunting Horn.” Natural Horsemanship, 6 Sept. 2013, Wordpress, naturalhorsemanship.wordpress.com/2013/09/06/the-calls-of-the-hunting-horn. Accessed 12 Feb. 2017.
          This source is a blog post that explains what different hunting horn calls mean. I have used this source in my wiki to give an example of the different types of calls that were           made by hunting horns in hunts. While these calls were created by more modern hunting horns, they provide a strong contrast to the traditional hunting horn by showing the           way in which the object has been modernised throughout the eighteenth century.
Classical Sheet Music Gratis. Wordpress, classicalsheetmusicgratis.org/wp-content/uploads/HOPKINSON-Francis-7-Songs-vocal-kbd.pdf. 19 Feb. 2017.
         This source is a pdf file showing the sheet music for Hopkinson's songs. I have used it in my wiki because the letter of dedication that Hopkinson has written to George           Washington (found at the start of the pdf document) explains his motivations for writing the songs and what he hoped to achieve by them. I thought this was an interesting           source to use in my wiki as it showed the way that hunting has remained a popular yet elite activity.

Conrad, Joseph. “Heart of Darkness.” Heart of Darkness and Other Tales, edited by Cedric Watts, Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 101-188.
          This is an extract from Conrad's landmark novel. I have used it to show the importance that the ivory trade had to colonialists, and the extents that they went to get it.

 Cox, Nancy, and Karin Dannehl. "Hondschoote say - Horn leaves." Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities 1550-1820. Wolverhampton: University of Wolverhampton, 2007. British History Online. Web. www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/traded-goods-dictionary/1550-1820/hondschoote-say-horn-leaves. Accessed 15 March 2017.
          This source is a sort of encyclopaedia of items that were traded from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. I have used this source in my wiki as it shows what basic horn           combs were worth in this period.

Cox, Nancy, and Karin Dannehl. "Isopie - Ivory leaves." Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities 1550-1820. Wolverhampton: University of Wolverhampton, 2007. British History Online. Web. www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/traded-goods-dictionary/1550-1820/isopie-ivory-leaves. Accessed 15 March 2017.
          This is the same source as the one above, but features a different entry. This source is important to my wiki as it shows the heightened value of ivory in the eighteenth century,           and the way in which fake ivory combs were popularly marketed.

Feinberg, Harvey M., and Marion Johnson. “The West African Ivory Trade during the Eighteenth Century: The "... and Ivory’ Complex.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 15, no. 3, 1982, pp. 435–453., JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/218146. Accessed 12 Mar. 2017.
          This source is a documentation of the ivory trade in the eighteenth century. It provides details about the way in which ivory was exported from West Africa to Europe, and that           the exported ivory was worth. This source is important as it allowed me to show figures that emphasise the value of ivory, and therefore of ivory combs over the traditional           bovine horn combs.

Grancsay. Stephen V., American Engraved Powder Horns: A Study Based on the J. H. Grenville Gilbert Collection. Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1946. Print.
          This source is a book which shows different powder horns in the Metropolitan Museum of Art collection, and the role that powder horns had in general. This source was used in           the wiki because it provided me with information about how powder horns were made and decorated in the eighteenth century.

Knoll, Martin. “Hunting in the Eighteenth Century. An Environmental History Perspective.” Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung, vol. 29, no. 3 (109), 2004, pp. 9–36., JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20761974. Accessed 30 Jan. 2017.
          This source is an article about the environmental impact of hunting in the eighteenth century. In my wiki I have used an extract from this article that demonstrates the elitist           role of hunting in Early Modern history, and how that shaped the way in which eighteenth century art and literature presented hunting as a cultural spectacle.

Lefcowitz, Barbara F. “Horns, Knobs, Branches," Southwest Review, vol. 84, no. 3. 1999. pp. 443-452., JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43472003. Accessed 27 Nov. 2016.
          This source is an article that presents the different uses of horns throughout history. I have used this source in my wiki to show that the use of horns as materials from which to           make everyday objects goes back to the very early human cilivisations.

Loussouarn, Sophie. “Gillray and the French Revolution.” National Identities, vol. 18, no. 3. 2016, pp. 327-343. Taylor and Francis Online, http://0-dx.doi.org.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/10.1080/14608944.2015.1047333. Accessed 16 Mar. 2017.

          This source is an article that analyses the connection between Gillray and the French Revolutions, as well as providing some background about the development of satire. I have used this in my wiki because it demonstrates the popular role that satire had in eighteenth century society.

Mac Cana, Proinsias. “IR. Buaball, W Bual 'Drinking Horn'.” Ériu, vol. 44, 1993, pp. 81–93., JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/30006879. Accessed 11 Mar. 2017.

          This source is an article that provides some history on the drinking horn. I have used it because it gave me information on the uses of the drinking horn in early periods of           history.


Macleod, Roderick Charles. The Macleods of Dunvegan from the Time of Leod to the End of the Seventeeth Century. Clan Macleod Society, 1927.
          This source is a book that documents the history of the Macleod Clan on the Isle of Skye. I have used it in my wiki because it documents the folklore surrounding the Dunvegan           drinking horn that Samuel Johnson talks about in his travel journal. This book also provided me with the image in Fig. 10.
McEachern, Claire. “Why Do Cuckolds Have Horns?” Huntington Library Quarterly, vol. 71, no. 4, 2008, pp. 607–631., JSTOR. www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/hlq.2008.71.4.607. Accessed 15 Nov. 2016.
          This is an essay that explores the link between animal horns and cuckoldry. I have used this source because it presents a theory that links the horns of virile animals to the           image of the cuckold, allowing me to use it as a way of explaining the horns of the cuckold in satire of the eighteenth century.

Monelle, Raymond. Musical Topic. Indiana University Press, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/warw/detail.action?docID=313175. Accessed 10 Mar. 2017.
          This source is an extract from Monelle's book that presents the history of the hunting horn. I have used this in my wiki because it explains the ways in which traditional ox           hunting horns differed from the more modern brass or copper ones. This source also gave me information about the musical capabilities of the traditional hunting horns.

“On Horn and Tortoiseshell.” Transactions of the Society, Instituted at London, for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, vol. 52, 1838, pp. 334–349., JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41326836. Accessed 11 Jan. 2017.
          This source is an early nineteenth century pamphlet that describes the many uses of animal horns and the ways in which objects made of horn are made. I have used this source           as it is a document that shows contemporary methods for creating objects made of horn.

Spillman, Jane Shadel. “Powder Horn Features Glassblower.” Journal of Glass Studies, vol. 44, 2002, pp. 200–201., JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24190882. Accessed 20 Nov. 2016.  
          This is an article that analyses a powder horn which features a design of a glassblower, and also provides information regarding the ways in which decorations on powder horns           were produced. I have used this source as it gave me information about the professional engravers that decorated powder horns, that I could use to contrast against the           traditional hand-made decorations of soldiers in the eighteenth century.


 Video 1 - “How Its Made Powder Horns.” Youtube, uploaded by How It’s Made, 7 Mar. 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=SDqfSDhkkGs.  
          This source is a Youtube video that shows the manufacturing process of a powder horn. I have included this video in my wiki because it is a very thorough documentation of the           making of a powder horn that is relatively similar the way in which they were made in the eighteenth century.    

OED definitions  

"cuckoldry, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, March 2017. Web. 16 Mar. 2017.
          This is a dictionary definition of the term 'cuckold.' I have used this to better explore the meaning of the word and the connection it has to horns.

"horn, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, March 2017. Web. 14 Nov. 2016. 
           This is a dictionary definition of the word 'horn' that I have used to introduce my wiki page.  


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