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The parasol, with its name deriving from the French (literally meaning 'protecting against the sun') is an item which came into fashion during the eighteenth-century. The word was used synonymously with umbrella (or the French parapluie literally meaning 'protecting against the rain') in the beginning of the century but the differentiation was beginning to be made towards the end. In this wiki page I will primarily be exploring the parasol, but in some cases the difficulty in the separating of the two means that I must consider them synonymous in order to conduct as much research as possible. It will be interesting to track the way in which these two items came into fashion and charting the different uses by both males and females throughout the eighteenth-century. The class differences between those who used and bought a parasol are also interesting to note, as it is clear that this was a item of some luxury which the lower classes were not using these during this century. I will also explore the concept of the parasol as a commodity and consider how it was represented as a tradable good. Considering the importance of trade in the eighteenth-century, it seems impossible to ignore the parasol as an item intimately connected. Certainly, the fact that it was an item of some luxury and connected with the exotic contributes to its rise in popularity thought the century. 


History of umbrellas:



This website is interesting as it comments on the fact that the distinction between an umbrella and a parasol was only beginning to be made during the end of the eighteenth-century, and during my research I will endeavour to discover the veracity of this statement. 


Google NGram for Umbrellahttps://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=umbrella&year_start=1700&year_end=1800&corpus=15&smoothing=40&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cumbrella%3B%2Cc0



Google NGram for Parasolhttps://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=parasol&year_start=1700&year_end=1800&corpus=15&smoothing=40&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cparasol%3B%2Cc0



These two Google NGrams highlight the increase in the use of both the word umbrella and parasol. The word umbrella is used more steadily throughout the eighteenth-century, whereas the word parasol sees a much more dramatic increase from the 1740's onwards. This, of course, can simply be attributed to a change in fashion which all words and objects undergo constantly. It is perhaps important to note that the increase in trading with other countries which the eighteenth-century saw is a potential reason for the increase in frequency of use f the word parasol. As a French word, and originally a French fashion, the ability to trade allowed English women to own these items of French fashion much more easily. For a discussion of this increase in trading and one opinion of its affect on the British public, see the Spectator No.69: http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/18century/topic_1/royal_exchange.htm. 6/03/2015. 


Also, for an amusing but brief overview of the history of the parasol in blog form, see: https://lifetakeslemons.wordpress.com/category/fashion/18th-c-accessories/ 31/01/2015 



Oxford English Dictionary Entries


Parasol, n. 

Something that gives shade from the rays of the sun; spec. a screen or canopy, usually in the form of a small light umbrella, often ornamental or brightly coloured; (hence more generally) a sunshade, sun-umbrella.

The parasol or sunshade was originally used by persons of high rank in South and South-East Asian countries, and was later adopted in Western countries where it became fashionable as a woman's accessory, esp. in the 19th cent.

1660   F. Brooke tr. V. Le Blanc World Surveyed 52   The Portugais..have their Parasols carried by them.

1676   J. Locke Jrnl. Trav. France Feb. in H. R. F. Bourne Life J. Locke (1876) I. vii. 351   Parasols, a pretty sort of cover for women riding in the sun, made of straw, something like the fashion of tin covers for dishes.

1765   E. Thompson Meretriciad (ed. 6) 50   And two more bore an Indian parasol.

1803   J. Porter Thaddeus of Warsaw (1826) III. iii. 49   She took her parasol and descended the stairs.

1839   Dickens Nicholas Nickleby xviii. 169   ‘You naughty creature!’ said the lively lady, poking the peer with her parasol.

1883   F. M. Crawford Dr. Claudius ii. 21   A dainty lace-covered parasol.


Umbrella, n.

A light portable screen or shade, usually circular in form and supported on a central stick or staff, used in hot countries as a protection for the head or person against the sun.

1611    T. Coryate Crudities sig. Lv,   Many of them doe carry other fine things.., which they commonly call in the Italian tongue vmbrellaes... These are made of leather something answerable to the forme of a little cannopy & hooped in the inside with diuers little wooden hoopes that extend the vmbrella in a prety large compasse.

1668    W. Davenant Man's the Master  ii. i,   A very desperate man..coming near so bright a Sun as you are without a Parasol, Umbrellia, or a Bondgrace.

1695    P. Motteux tr. F. Pidou de St. Olon Present State Morocco 148   An Umbrella was carry'd over me, which in some manner defended me from the Heat of the Sun's Rays.

1716    J. Gay Trivia  i. 14   Let Persian Dames th'Umbrella's Ribs display, To guard their Beauties from the sunny Ray.

a1739    C. Jarvis tr. Cervantes Don Quixote (1742) I.  i. iv. 18   They came with their umbrellas, and four servants on horse-back.

1797    T. Holcroft tr. F. L. Stolberg Trav. (ed. 2) III. lxxxix. 479   The heat began so early in the day that, at six o'clock, we were obliged to use our umbrellas.

1832    G. Downes Lett. from Continental Countries I. 341   The costume is very picturesque in this part of Tuscany, always excepting the monstrous yellow umbrella, which is part and parcel of it. 


These two definitions highlight the interchangeability of these two words. Both are used to protect from the sun, while I will consider later how in England this became protection from the rain - probably because of England's terrible weather! 




Women and Fashion


As an item of fashion first and foremost, it is important to discuss the parasol in relation to women and consider how this can be read in a wider relation to society. The parasol was  luxurious and exotic item in the eighteenth-century, most likely because of the fact that most of the materials required to make such an object were shipped from other countries.


It is clear from images at the time - see the Jacob Buys painting (9) - that, for many women, the parasol was an item that was an accessory, rather than a practical item in the way it was used by the men. The image by Buys is amusing because this young woman is holding the parasol in such a way that it would give little or no actual shelter from the sun. Here it is possible to see, then, that the parasol is a fashion item, an accessory. This paining suggests that the parasol was something to be seen with, and yet perhaps was not of much practical use. Certainly this parasol in the image looks to be made of very thin materials and would perhaps not stand up against any strong wind or rain. It is also amusing that the young woman is using the parasol whilst in what appears to be a wooded area, where trees would giver her as much if not more shade than her parasol. It is interesting, then, to consider the connection with fashion today, where often the items which are most popular are in fact the least practical.


As well as this, the pose of the young woman - resting against the ornament with her bust pushed forward -has seductive or even sexual connotations. It is clear from other publications and images at the time that this is not an uncommon connection with the parasol. Baptiste- Mallet's painting, (1), also highlights this. This image is noteworthy because it opens up another use of the parasol than simply giving shelter or shade; privacy. The young man and woman in this picture have their heads hidden from the woman behind them, which suggests that the parasol is offering this couple greater privacy and intimacy. Amusingly, both the young man and women have hats and therefore the parasol's use of providing shade is surely made redundant, leaving its sole purpose to provide privacy. This is something that, in the modern day, we surely take for granted, however in a society where private time for courting couples was considerably limited compared to today, this can only be considered a positive. This perhaps would also connect to the increase in the fashion for the parasol as it allowed young ladies to be slightly more independent and make a more informed choice of husband or - indeed - a lover!


In terms of fashion, the True Briton article highlights the way in which women with a parasol were considered to be of a higher class, perhaps indicating their value. In this article, the parasol is connected with a women, a women who is reported to have potentially thrown herself from the bridge. What interested me, though, was the reporting of her clothing and accessories. The only items mentioned are a 'fine lace veil' and the parasol, both items of luxury and some worth. The fact that she was also a 'beautiful' woman, intrigued me, as it lead me to question whether this article would have been published had she been a woman of a lower class. who did not own beautiful things or was not herself beautiful. As well as this, the fact that this young woman was reported to be seen suggests, perhaps, that she was noticed because of her clothing and accessories, and indeed the attraction of fine items is something to take note of. To own a parasol, then, was perhaps somewhat rare and undeniably indicative of wealth. 


The image and description of the Chinese woman with a parasol serves to indicate the exoticism of the parasol and perhaps explains the intrigue and surge in usage of them. As well as connecting with the concept of trade and the parasol as a tradable good, the image and description highlights the way in which the parasol was viewed as an exotic item.Chinese silks and goods were in high demand in the 18th Century. (For more information, follow this link: http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelpregion/asia/china/guidesources/chinatrade/ 5/03/2015). I would suggest that this is a huge reason for the rise of the parasol in the 18th Century, as the link to exoticism and countries such as China, which were connected very strongly with luxury and mystery, would have made any items connected with them in high demand in Britain. The description of the way this Chinese woman must walk differently to that of a European women only confirms this.Indeed, the suggestion of cautiousness evokes the concept of a demure woman, who is not rushing (and couldn't even if she wanted to!) and is calm and reticent. This is something which the high class women of the eighteenth-century were expected to be or at least aspire to. Certainly the characters in Austen novels such as Emma and Pride and Prejudice are depicted as being fully aware of this need to perpetuate an image of a demure and quiet woman. 



As well being considered an exotic item in Britain, it is also necessary to consider the use or mention of the parasol in other countries. Leonard Euler, a noted mathematician, wrote letters (of which this is only a very small excerpt) to two German Princesses: Friederike Charlotte of Brandenburg-Schwedt and her younger sister Louise. These letters contained many interesting educational points, as can be seen here, the mention of the parasol in this context was interesting in terms of considering the difference in education women. To compare the sun and the moon to a woman and her parasol creates the suggestion that women must engage on a persona, more trivial level, with her subject in order to understand it. On a less cynical level, however, it is of course possible that this was just a clever technique used by Euler to engage the interest of the princesses in matters that perhaps did not interest them. Either way, the use of the parasol in this manner suggest that the parasol was a 'household' object (to use an anachronistic term) that was well known enough to be used in a comparison. On the other hand, with the princesses being of the highest class it is safe to assume that if anyone was to be aware of the latest and most expensive fashions, it would be them. For the entirety of the letters, follow this link: http://homepages.wmich.edu/~mcgrew/euler.htm 06/03/2015. 


The final way in which I want to consider the parasol in relation to women, is to look at Mary Robinson's poem, Modern Manners. When signing this poem, Robsinon wrote "Horace Juvenal", a joke which Thomas Robinson describes as "incongruously yoking for comic effect the two great (but very different) Roman poets" (106). To use the parasol in a satire, though, mocking the world of fashion, suggest that perhaps to some people in the 18th Century, the parasol was in fact an unnecessary item, as I have suggested before, used only as an accessory rather than for practical use. Again, though, this does suggest that the parasol was common enough in usage, so common in fact that those who used it were mocked by satirists such as Robinson for their apparent slavery to the fashion world. This is something which can still be seen today, with the term "fashion victims" being applied to the people Robinson mocks. To think more about fashion items in the eighteenth-century, see the page on the Waistcoat orPetticoat, or to learn more about Mary Robinson, follow this link:  http://www.janeausten.co.uk/mary-robinson-a-life-lived-extraordinarily/ 06/03/2015.





(Young Woman Holding a Parasol Jacob Buys c. 1724 - 1801)




(A couple under a parasol in a garden – Jean-Baptiste Mallet (1791-1793)




True Briton (1793) (London, England), Tuesday, October 22, 1799; Issue 2133



"The costume of China, illustrated by sixty engravings: with explanations in English and French.” by George Henry Mason



“Letters of Euler to a German princess, on different subjects in physics and philosophy."






Mary Robinson, Modern Manners (extract containing reference to parasol):


“While poor mama is forced behind to lag, 

Puffing and panting like a hunted stag : 

While -- fam'd for every thing that's odd , 

Shoulders his parasol , and moves a god ! 

He who controul'd the giddy throng long since , 

Where those who doat on trifles---dubb'd him --- 


Where'er you turn, seducing fashion rules, 

Beyond the pedantry of Reason's schools! 

Ah! who wou'd study Greek, or toil to store 

The fashion'd mind with learning's pond'rous lore?”






Jonas Hanway/Men and Fashion


Jonas Hanway:


Jonas Hanway (1712-1786) was both a  traveller and a philanthropist and is widely acknowledged to be the first man to carry an umbrella in England. In the below extract taken from The British Plutarch by Mortimer Thomas describes Hanway and makes reference to his use of the umbrella, or the parapluie. It has been made clear in several publications such as this that the fashion for an umbrella was a clearly French one and, when Hanway was first sporting it, one that was clearly resented by the English public. In this comic blog (http://tealcartoons.com/2013/05/20/jonas-hanway-philanthropy-umbrellas-tea/ 31/01/2015) , Hanway's interest in umbrella's is discussed and the comic teasing of Hanway by the public of "Frenchman! Why don’t you call a coach?" can be considered to represent the public opinion in the early part of the eighteenth-century that a man with a parasol/umbrella could simply not afford coach for the same purpose. 

In the image, (2), the painter shows onlookers in the street staring at Hanway - whose expression indicates an extreme lack of interest in their opinion! The comparative size of the umbrella puts the it at the forefront of the image and therefore emphasises its strangeness or novelty at the time. For more infomration on Hanway, follow  http://0-www.oxforddnb.com.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/view/article/12230?docPos=1 01/02/2015 






(Jonas Hanway, the first Englishman who ever carried an umbrella) 




Men and Fashion


After looking at Hanway, then, the Umbrella Characteristics, (3), below  is particularly interesting, as it was published over 100 years after the death of Jonas Hanway, a man who was ridiculed for this use of the umbrella/parasol, and yet here it is clear to see that this is an accessory that was popular among men of all types. It is interesting, though, that all the men featured here appear to be of a higher class which would suggest that the umbrella/parasol was an accessory that was expensive enough to limit its uses to the higher classes. This is strange, though, as can be seen from the episode with Hanway the use of a parasol/umbrella as suggesting the man cannot afford a carriage and therefore would suggest that the umbrella would be a product used by less wealthy people. 



Contrastingly, Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, a castaway character who is not really of any class during the book (although his family have aspirations of his becoming a lawyer) and yet is featured with the umbrella/parasol. Defoe's famous protagonist's use of the umbrella is depicted here. Here are a few quotes from "The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe" originally published in 1719:

  • "After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an umbrella; I was, indeed, in great want of one, and had a great mind to make one; I had seen them made in the Brazils, where they are very useful in the great heats there, and I felt the heats every jot as great here, and greater too, being nearer the equinox; besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats." 
  • "I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where I had been before, when I travelled on foot to that shore; so taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and umbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, I began my march."
    • In these two extracts, then, it is clear to see that the umbrella/parasol is being used to ward off the sun, and is considered to be an item of great importance. Of course, in a country with an extreme climate such as the remote island where Robinson Crusoe finds himself the umbrella used for this purpose is far more practical than it would be on the drizzly streets of London, however it's alignment with the gun gives us an indication of the worth of this object and the necessity of keeping the suns rays from the man. It is interesting, then, that the parasol use by fashionable women in the eighteenth-century used for the same purpose in England (a country not known for its dangerous heat!), although for these women it was to keep the harmful rays of the sun from their fair skin. See the Toilet page for a further exploration of the ways in which women in the eighteenth-century went about maintaining their youth and beauty.  

Continuing to consider the way in which men used or rather viewed the parasol/umbrella and the connections that this has with their masculinity. The Weekly Entertainer source has been included here to describe an artichoke suggest that the parasol has become a common, household item that anyone reading this would have instantly recognised. This is important when considering the rise of the use of the parasol in the 18th century, as the Google NGrams charts the way in which it increases in usage throughout the century. The Weekly Entertainer began to be published in the mid 80's of the 18th Century, and so it it clear that by this time the parasol has become a commonly recognised object. As well as just a simple reading though when reading this source or indeed the extract from Robinson Crusoe, it seems impossible not to think of the male figure in Mary Robinson's poem being mocked for his use of a parasol. This story, then, reads as a way of making men believe that the parasol/umbrella is a useful and masculine object.  







(Umbrella Characterists, 1890) 






( Robinson Crusoe brings in the first kid. ca. 1900) 



The Weekly Entertainer: 









Ideas of Class:


When researching the parasol it is impossible to ignore the class implications of an expensive and exotic item that is used largely by the rich. To help me understand this, this quote from http://www.localhistories.org/18thcent.html 03/01/2015 was helpful "Owning land was the main form of wealth in the 18th century. Political power and influence was in the hands of rick landowners. At the top were the nobility, below them were a class of nearly rich landowners called the gentry. In the early 18th century there was another class of landowners called yeoman between the rich and the poor. However during the century this class became less and less numerous. however other middle class people such as merchants ad professional men became richer and more numerous, especially in the towns" 


See two mentions of the parasol in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, both of which indicate a connection with class.  

1. When Lydia is writing to her mother from her visit to the Forsters: “Those to her mother, contained little else, than that they were just returned from the library, where such and such officers had attended them, and where she had seen such beautiful ornaments as made her quite wild; that she had a new gown, or a new parasol, which she would have described more fully, but was obliged to leave off in a violent hurry…”

2. When Elizabeth is forced to take a turn with Lady Catherine: “Elizabeth obeyed, and running into her own room for her parasol, attended her noble guest down stairs.”

     o This, then, suggests that the parasol is something that the middle classes aspired to own, but as it was not a necessity it was considered a luxury. It could be said that the reference of the parasol only in relation to women in this novel suggests that the parasol was more often than not a women's accessory, as the paleness of their skin was considered a virtue, however Austen's novels can hardly be considered a fair way to judge considering the female heavy character list. 


Also a clear class indicator is The Miseries of Thomas Rowlandson. The man in the front, who we can consider to be of a lower class than the two behind him, is wiping his bow and his facial expression suggests that  it is the heat which is bothering him. The couple behind him, in contrast, are content under their parasol, protected from the sun's rays and therefore unperturbed by the heat.   This makes a clear class distinction between those who could afford a parasol and those who could not, and the different classes that these two type of people fall into. The appearance of these two men in particular can be considered, with the first man being much thinner than the latter and his dress being less fashionable; both of these things can be said to be the artistic exaggerating the differences between the upper and lower classes. As well as this, from the title of the painting, "The Miseries of the Country Thomas Rowlandson" the difference between the country and the city is also being explored; with the comedy of a man and woman of a higher class, possibly from the city, who spend far less time outside than the country man ahead of them, and yet they own item designed to keep the sun from their heads.  


Also displaying interesting insights into eighteenth-century class is Francisco de Goya's painting titled Parasol.This painting, while absolutely stunning with its use of colour, is fascinating in the gender roles it displays. Here a man is holding the parasol for the young woman, who herself is holding her fan unopened. This is interesting as it could potentially highlight another class difference that the parasol emphasises. This painting was commissioned by Prince and Princess of Asturias—the future King Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma - for their dining room. The depiction of a man, clearly a servant of the young man indicated by the way he is dressed in much darker and less luxurious clothes than the woman, is very interesting as the indication is that a woman is too fragile or weak to hold her own parasol. It is difficult to know the weight of a parasol in the eighteenth-century although it is thought that the spokes and the handle were made from whalebone (http://www.marquise.de/en/themes/howto/sonnenschirm.shtml 03/01/2015) and therefore the notion of a woman of a particularly high class (a princess, for example) to hold her own parasol would have been unthinkable. 


The last way I want to examine class in relation to the parasol is through the advert in The Oracle and Public Advertiser. This source opens a fascinating link to modern day commodity culture, with the competition of companies selling similar items under different brand names. Here the patent for parasols and umbrellas is clearly being ignored by other companies, perhaps suggesting that John Beale's goods are expensive, forcing less wealthy customers to find an alternative vendor. The concept of owning the 'genuine' item, rather than a 'counterfeit' is one which is still heavily important today, with companies selling similar items at a lower price. Clearly this is occurring in the selling of parasols and umbrellas in the 18th Century. Again, the concept of class comes into it. To own the 'genuine' John Beale item would clearly indicate that one was more wealthy and more socially aware than someone owning a counterfeit. 






(https://sites.google.com/site/pianointheregencyera/ 03/01/2015)






(The Miseries of the Country Thomas Rowlandson, 1756-1827, British undated) 




(Parasol Francisco de Goya 1777-1778)


Oracle and Public Advertiser (London, England), Saturday, August 6, 1796; Issue 19 393.









A huge part of the history of the eighteenth-century, trade - or rather, the trade of goods - is something that cannot be ignored when discussing an 'exotic' item such as the parasol. To understand a little more about the British Empire in the eighteenth-century follow these links: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/timeline/18century.htm and http://www.deirdremccloskey.com/docs/graham/overseas.pdf


The below image, (5), by Dumons is interesting as it can be connected with the concept of trade and the importance of this in terms of commodities available in Britain. Looking back to the page on the history of umbrellas (http://www.oakthriftumbrellas.com/pages/umbrellas4.htm 03/02/2015) which makes it clear that the umbrella was first and foremost a 'foreign' good and this contributed to the increase in fashion for these items as the 'exotic' was something that was desired in this century where trade with other countries was booming. The image of the ship in the harbour, potentially either setting off or retuning from a voyage to another country in order to trade, is very common in this period and the addition of the parasol to the picture emphasises the purpose of the ship: to bring back tradable goods such as the parasol and items of fashion. Similarly, the article by the World and Fashionable Advertiser clearly pictures the parasol as a a luxurious tradable good. By seeing it in a list with other expensive items such as carriages, liquor, tea, and sugar, it is clear that the parasol was becoming a necessary item for those who could afford, it much like sugar or a carriage. This is a positive image presented by the World and Fashionable Advertiser, suggesting at the power and prowess of the British Empire. 


Contrastingly, the image by Frans van der Mijn highlights the very negative side to the British trading. This image can also be contrasted with the very positive view of trading that can be found in Addison's Spectator 69, as the image of the black slave carrying the parasol for his master is one which is deeply uncomfortable for us in the twenty first century. This view of class is considerably more palpable than in de Goya's painting and raises questions about the importance and worth of the expansion of trade when we consider the price paid by the men and women brought into slavery as a result (http://www.historytoday.com/james-walvin/black-people-britain-eighteenth-century 03/02/2015).  The use of the parasol, again indicting class, being carried by the young black man, presumably a slave or servant, highlights the way in which luxurious accessories such as these have a less than positive back story. Much like the concern with fur coats or ivory in later times, this is clearly a way to view the rise in the popularity of the parasol as a very negative thing. 





(Lady with parasol over looking harbour from terrace Dumons, Jean-Joseph (French, 1687-1779) 





World and Fashionable Advertiser: 








(schilder/ Mijn, Frans van der  Portrait of Jan Pranger, Director General of the Dutch West India Company Trading Post of the Gold Coast [Jan Pranger (1700-73). Directeur-generaal van de Goudkust (1730-34))






Primary Sources:


Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Penguin Classics, 2003. Print. 


Euler, Leonhard “Letters of Euler to a German princess, on different subjects in physics and philosophy. Translated from the French by Henry Hunter, D.D. With original notes, and a glossary of foreign and scientific terms.” In two volumes. printed for the translator, and for H. Murray. London, 1795. 

            These letters are very interesting in terms of gender and education, the parasol connects with these as the mathematician clearly uses the image of the parasol in order to maintain the attentions of the young princesses.



Mason, George Henry. “The costume of China, illustrated by sixty engravings: with explanations in English and French.” By W.Miller for S. Gosnell. London, 1800. 

            This highlighted the way in which, even at the end of the century, parasols were an item of luxury connected with the exotic.


Oracle and Public Advertiser (London, England), Saturday, August 6, 1796; Issue 19 393.

I found this advertisement absolutely fascinating as it highlighted the parasol as being a particularly sought after and luxurious object, so much so that counterfeits and less expensive versions were made for those who could not afford the high priced ones. 


Pindar, Peter. “The Works of Peter Pindar ESQ. J Walker, 1811. Online.

Peter Pindar, the pseudonym of John Wolcott, was a well-known satirist of the 18th Century and it was interesting to read a satiric mention of the parasol.



Robinson, Daniel. “The Poetry of Mary Robinson: Form and Fame” Palgrave Machmillan: 2011. Online.  

From this source I was able to read Mary Robinson’s poem, “Modern Manners” which allowed me to understand the importance of the parasol in terms of fashion and the class implications of such an object.



The Weekly entertainer; or Agreeable and instructive repository. Containing a collection of select pieces, both in prose and verse; curious anecdotes, instructive tales, and ingenious essays on different subjects. R. Goadby and Co. 1783-1819.

It was interesting to see the way parasols/umbrellas were viewed in a story format, almost romanticized as being objects of survival.



World and Fashionable Advertiser (London, England), Wednesday, August 22, 1787; Issue 199. Category: News.

            From this source I found a strong sense, for the first time in my research, of the parasol as a commodity or an item to be traded. 




Secondary Sources:


Thompson, E.P. “Eighteenth-Century English Society: Class Struggle without Class?” Social History Vol.3 No.2. Taylor and Francis, 1978. 133-165. Online. 

     From this source I learnt a little about the class system in the 18th Century. Admittedly, however, I struggled with this and have not included it in my page, but rather kept it in mind as I wrote. 


Thomas, Robinson. "The Poetry of Mary Robinson: Form and Fame" Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Online. 

     From this source I was able to understand a little more about Mary Robinson and her use of satire.  






(1) https://lifetakeslemons.wordpress.com/2012/06/05/


(2) http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchdetail.cfm?strucID=719108&imageID=824683


(3) https://lifetakeslemons.wordpress.com/category/fashion/18th-c-accessories/


(4) http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchdetail.cfm?strucID=1867450&imageID=1697950


(5) http://0-library.artstor.org.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/library/iv2.html?parent=true


(6) http://0-library.artstor.org.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/library/iv2.html?parent=true


(7) http://0-library.artstor.org.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/library/iv2.html?parent=true


(8) http://0-library.artstor.org.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/library/iv2.html?parent=true


(9) http://0-library.artstor.org.pugwash.lib.warwick.ac.uk/library/iv2.html?parent=true


(10) https://sites.google.com/site/pianointheregencyera/




Comments (2)

clupton said

at 11:11 am on Jan 7, 2015

Hi Mia -- it's Jonas Hanway I was thinking of as umbrella inventor. Here's one piece describing him in funny terms: http://tealcartoons.com/2013/05/20/jonas-hanway-philanthropy-umbrellas-tea/

But search for Hanway and Umbrella as terms and you'll be sure to find more in ECCO/Historical texts.

Mia Durrant said

at 5:15 pm on Feb 1, 2015

Very late response, but thank you! Hanway is now his own section.

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